Heart sounds courtesy of Dr Robert Lichtenberg

Case 1

I hope that you reviewed heart sounds exercise and you are comfortable with it. The emphasis for this exercise is understanding and recognizing murmurs. I will not spend much time for heart sounds. However you should be aware that in the final analysis, heart sounds are integral part for interpreting the murmurs.

Listen over and over until you become comfortable.

A.J. Chandrasekhar

List and describe the heart sounds and murmurs you are hearing. You are auscultating over the apex of heart with diaphragm.








Case 1 answer 

You are listening to:

What do we call this murmur?

What are the conditions where you may hear a similar murmur? What is the mechanism for generation of this murmur?











Can be heard in

You are listening to a patient with mitral regurgitation. What are the anticipated changes to heart sounds and why?










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