Students should be able to:  

Recognize the common electrolyte abnormalities of hospitalized patients.  

            List the common etiologies for:  

a. Hyponatremia

b. Hypernatremia

c. Hypokalemia

d. Hyperkalemia

e. Hypocalcemia

f. Hypercalcemia

g. Hypophosphatemia

h. Hyperphosphatemia

i. Hypomagnesemia

j. Hypermagnesemia

            Describe an approach to identifying the most likely etiology of hyponatremia.

Recognize the mechanism by which hypercalcemia causes volume depletion  

Recognize clinical consequences, common signs and symptoms associated with each of the above disorders.           

            Identify ECG findings in each of the above disorders, if any. Identify indications for the urgent and non-urgent correction of hyperkalemia.

Differentiate between short- and long-acting therapies for management of hyperkalemia, with respect to:

a. Mechanism of action

b. Onset of action

c. Duration of action

Identify the clinical conditions which can change the volume of distribution of a drug.

Describe the effect of chronic therapy with loop diuretics.

Describe the use of laboratory and other testing to identify the causes of the above disorders.

Describe the approach to management of each of the above disorders.