An eighty year old woman, EF, is a functionally independent woman in generally good health. She lives alone, has no significant past medical history, and has a supportive family in the area. While watching television one evening, she notices a feeling of fluttering in her chest, becomes weak and dizzy, and extremely short of breath. She calls 911 and is transported to the emergency room where she is found to be in rapid atrial fibrillation and pulmonary edema. She responds somewhat to intravenous diuretics and is admitted to the intensive care unit.